Trump has shown himself to be a very transactional political leader.
Beyond 'He' or 'She': The Changing Meaning of Gender and Sexuality
His support for policies is often tied to what he stands to gain politically from their implementation. Trump is just flat-out not going to see a relationship between this policy encouraging other countries to decriminalize homosexuality and his anti-amnesty measures that make it harder for people from these very same countries to come to America for safety. And he deserves criticism for that. But pushing those other countries to decriminalize homosexuality is a positive move that advances human liberty and should be supported.
If this policy moves into a space where the U. Asset Forfeiture. Greg and Teresa Almond lost their house after a financially devastating drug raid involving civil asset forfeiture. Ciaramella 4. Second Amendment. The organization objects to gun restrictions only if they impinge on other constitutional provisions. Jacob Sullum 4.
President George W. Bush was once attacked by the same people for rejecting the very same policy.
Robby Soave 4. Joe Setyon 4. Search for: Email Address. Henri Lichtenberger and Charles Andler have pinpointed three works contemporary to Nietzsche which carried on the same hypothesis: Vogt, Die Kraft. Walter Benjamin juxtaposes Blanqui and Nietzsche's discussion of eternal recurrence in his unfinished, monumental work The Arcades Project. Vogt's work, on the other hand, was read by Nietzsche during this summer of in Sils-Maria. Walter Kaufmann suggests that Nietzsche may have encountered this idea in the works of Heinrich Heine , who once wrote:.
They may indeed disperse into the smallest particles; but these particles, the atoms, have their determinate numbers, and the numbers of the configurations which, all of themselves, are formed out of them is also determinate. Now, however long a time may pass, according to the eternal laws governing the combinations of this eternal play of repetition, all configurations which have previously existed on this earth must yet meet, attract, repulse, kiss, and corrupt each other again Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing", [ citation needed ] referring to it as a burden of the "heaviest weight" " das schwerste Gewicht "  imaginable.
He professes that the wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life:. What, if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus?
Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate": My formula for human greatness is amor fati: Not merely to bear the necessary, still less to conceal it—all idealism is mendaciousness before the necessary—but to love it. In Carl Jung's seminar on Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Jung claims that the dwarf states the idea of the eternal return before Zarathustra finishes his argument of the eternal return when the dwarf says, "'Everything straight lies,' murmured the dwarf disdainfully.
The philosopher and writer Albert Camus explores the notion of "eternal return" in his essay on "The Myth of Sisyphus", in which the repetitive nature of existence comes to represent life's absurdity, something the hero seeks to withstand through manifesting what Paul Tillich called "The Courage to Be". Though the task of rolling the stone repeatedly up the hill without end is inherently meaningless, the challenge faced by Sisyphus is to refrain from despair.
Hence Camus famously concludes that, "one must imagine Sisyphus happy. Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann has described an argument originally put forward by Georg Simmel , which rebuts the claim that a finite number of states must repeat within an infinite amount of time:. Even if there were exceedingly few things in a finite space in an infinite time, they would not have to repeat in the same configurations. Suppose there were three wheels of equal size, rotating on the same axis, one point marked on the circumference of each wheel, and these three points lined up in one straight line.
Thus a system could have an infinite number of distinct physical configurations that never recur.
However the example presupposes the possibility of perfect continuity: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A theory that the universe and all existence is perpetually recurring. This article is about the philosophical concept. For other uses, see Eternal return disambiguation. For other uses, see Eternal Recurrence.
Eternal return - Wikipedia
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See also: End time in Indian religions. AK Peters, Ltd. Volume II: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same trans.
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David Farrell Krell. New York: Harper and Row, The Arcades Project.
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Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin. Belknap-Harvard, See chapter D, "Boredom Eternal Return," pp.
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